References

Battle of Khe Sanh. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/battle-of-khe-sanh

Burke, M. (2014, November 17). The bloody battle of Khe Sanh: 77 days under siege. Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.stripes.com/news/special-reports/vietnam-at-50/the-bloody-battle-of-khe-sanh-77-days-under-siege-1.314627

Battlefield Vietnam – Part 08: Siege at Khe Sanh. (2011, August 29). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dh-qZV7l-g

Vietnam War Protests. (2010). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-protests

Kindig, J. (2008). Vietnam War: Student Activism. Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://depts.washington.edu/antiwar/vietnam_student.shtml

Kent State Incident. (2009). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/kent-state

The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.hulu.com/watch/337497

Pentagon Papers. (2011). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/pentagon-papers

The Pentagon Papers: Excerpt and Links. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ellsberg/ppexcerpt.html

Guan, A. (2000, October). The Vietnam War, 1962-64: The Vietnamese Communist Perspective. Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://vi.uh.edu/pages/buzzmat/vnarticles/guanvn6264commie.pdf

Guan, A. (2010, April 24). POINTER – Journals – 2005 – Vol 31 No. 3 – The Vietnam War From The Communist Perspective. Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/publications/pointer/journals/2005/v31n3/features/feature5.html

Royce, C., & Guan, A. (2012). Research into Practice: Understanding the Vietnam War from the Communists’ Perspective. Retrieved December 6, 2015, from http://www.hsseonline.edu.sg/journal/volume-1-issue-1-2012/research-practice-understanding-vietnam-war-communists-perspective

Cosgrove, B. (2014, August 25). Khe Sanh and Operation Pegasus: Scenes From Vietnam, 1968. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from http://time.com/3880754/khe-sanh-and-operation-pegasus-scenes-from-vietnam-1968/

More War and Peace. (2012, February 1). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.iowalum.com/magazine/feb12/memories.cfm

Maypole, J. (n.d.). History of Students for a Democratic Society & the Vietnam War. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://study.com/cimages/multimages/16/sds_logo.jpg

The killings at Kent State – CNN.com. (2015, June 5). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://edition.cnn.com/2014/05/02/us/gallery/kent-state-shooting/

Pentagon Papers Fully Declassified on Famous Leak’s 40th Anniversary. (2011, June 13). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/news/pentagon-papers-fully-declassified-on-famous-leaks-40th-anniversary

Cooper, M., & Roberts, S. (2011, June 7). After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/08/us/08pentagon.html?_r=0

40 Years Ago Today, the New York Times Began Publishing the Pentagon Papers. (2011, June 13). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.ellsberg.net/archive/40-years-ago-today-the-new-york-times-began-publishing-the-pentagon-papers

The Domino Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/vietnam2-domino-theory.htm

Vietnam War. (2014, April 21). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://historyaliveau.blogspot.com/2014/04/vietnam-war.html

YOUTH, MASS CULTURE, AND PROTEST: THE RISE AND IMPACT OF 1960S ANTIWAR MUSIC. (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://teachrock.org/lesson/youth-mass-culture-and-protest-the-rise-and-impact-of-1960s-antiwar-music/

Agent Orange. (2011). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/agent-orange

Rohn, A. (2014, January 22). How Much Did The Vietnam War Cost? – The Vietnam War. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://thevietnamwar.info/how-much-vietnam-war-cost/

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War Protests of the 1960s. (2014, October 2). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://warprotestsofthe1960s.blogspot.com/2014/10/bob-dylans-pathetic-appeal.html

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Impact of the Vietnam War on the United States today

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The Vietnam War have a big impact on the United States today because after the war there are many chances that was made for a better world and peace.  One of the things that change is the use of chemical bomb and weapon because they learn that it is a really dangerous weapons that effect not only the enemy but innocent people that live in the area.  For example, during the Vietnam War, American drop the Agent Orange, also known as Herbicide Orange, an herbicides and defoliants chemical that was used to destroy crops bushes, and trees for better transportation and also destroying foods.  Even though it was use for that purpose, they never really evacuate the people there for many people were effect by it, not just them but their kids were also effect by this chemical.  The Agent Orange causes birth defects, cancer and other illness, and Vietnam claim that half a million children was effect by this.  Vietnam can’t fully blame the U.S. for this because the person who ask for this operation to be done is South Vietnam leader at that time Ngo Dinh Diem, so the U.S. should not be taken full responsible for this incident.  Another impact that we have in this war have to do with politics issues because there are many people oppose to the Vietnam War because of the draft system, the Government hide things that they did in Vietnam so it will take a long time for people to fully trust the Government and President again.  When the pentagon paper was released many people were upset about being lies to by the people that they trust to keep the country safe, and that is when trusting become of problem between the public and higher official.  Economic become a problem after the war, and since the United State is a big country moneys have to be used carefully and the U.S. is in a financial problem since they have to pay veteran who fight in this war, and it is a lot since they sent so many troops to Vietnam.  There is veteran who committed suicide and there are many suffered from psychological trauma after the war.  The United States spend hundreds of billions of dollars on the Vietnam War, include military cost, and aid to South Vietnam.  There is a lot of bad events that happen during the Vietnam War that many people will not be able to forget but the U.S. learn from this and tried to do things right from now on.

Pentagon Paper

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The Pentagon Paper is a secret document that Daniel Ellsberg secretly reveal to the public by giving it to many different newspaper company.  Daniel Ellsberg is an activist and former U.S. military analyst, who later work for RAND Corporation (Research and Development), supported by the Government.  The Corporation contain secret information about the military and war that are not allow to be disclose to the public.  Daniel Ellsberg has been little by little taken the secret documents from the Corporation and copy it for later used.  He then uses those document to talk to some of the Senator to help him fix the problem or release it to let the public know but they all refused to help him therefor he has no choice but the gave it to newspaper publisher, knowing that he will be in trouble.  The reason he wants to ask Senator for help first because he know that they can protect and tried to get out of trouble even though he already did when he secretly taking those document without the corporation knowledge.  The reason he wanted to release this document because he himself was shock to find what was in there written about the war.  The secret documents contain many military information but most of all it contains information about what really happen in Vietnam and what the U.S. does over there.  The document contains a lot of wrong things that the U.S. did without telling the public about it, one of the things is when they say that they have withdrew all U.S. military troops from Vietnam but behind that lies there are still people over there.  Another thing that really shock peoples is the number of troops being sent to Vietnam, there are approximately 500.000 troops being sent to Vietnam by 1968, which is not long after the war start and month by month many young men were sent to Vietnam to risk their life.  One of the things that upset the publish is when they found out that capture enemy was tortured in a cruel way and they do not except what their own country did to another human being, even if they are enemy.  After reading through this document and find out all of the things that really happen in the Vietnam War time, he decided to let the public know what they should have known.  He betrayed the people that he works with to reveal the truth to the people of the United State.  Even though he was in trouble with the Government and the Corporation, he was protected by the public since they are thankful and support what he did.

Student for a Democratic Society

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There are many anti-war movements happen in 1964, when the Vietnam was happening because there are many peoples were force to join the military because of the draft.  One of the anti-war movement that happen at that time is the Student for a Democratic Society (SDS), and this is a student activist movement that happen in the United State to protest against the Vietnam War.   Student Activist is student who work toward changes in political, environmental, economic, or social.    The protest at first start out as a smaller scale anti-war movement at colleges campus, but it later growth larger because of the demand of people to be send to Vietnam.  Everyday soldiers were killed in the war for a long time and they still sending more and more young men to Vietnam knowing that the chances of them getting killed in battle is really big.  Approximately 40,000 young men were called into service each month, which led to some 100,000 protesters to gathered at the Lincoln Memorial to protest against the Vietnam War.  Students are just standing up for their own right and try to stop the draft from happening because many more live will be taken away as long as the war is still happening.  Things get more violence when more and more protest were happening and students were being pushy toward the guards, and innocence life was taken way. A big protest happens at Kent State University happen in 1970, when resident Nixon announce the need of more men to be sent to Vietnam. Nixon announce it on National television that he will be drafting 150,000 more people to be sent to Vietnam for the war.  That is when an incident that happen at Kent State University that cause a riot because guardsmen opened fire on a crows and killed four students and wounded nine.  And as always it is unfair for people, and anyone who work for the Government is being protected.  Even though this incident was put into investigation it was later dismissed due to the lack of evidence.  Many were angry about his injustice judgement since many people saw what happen when the shooting happens but their view was never use as evidence for this case even though they are the witness at the scene when the shooting happens.  Afterward more and more colleges around the U.S. launches protest against the Vietnam War and the injustice case that happen at Kent State University.  Things start off as student marching and holding banner against the war but later it gets more violence and when that happen the protest get bigger and create more riot in the U.S.

Battle of Khe Sanh

 

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The Battle of Khe Sanh take place before the Tet Offensive, this battle is just a trap to distract the U.S. while North Vietnam and Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive.  The battle began on January 21, 1968 and end on July 9,1968; which is a 77 days’ battle.  The battle was fought between Army of North Vietnam (PAVN) and the U.S. during the Vietnam War.  PAVN carried out a massive artillery bombardment on the U.S. Marine garrison located in Khe Sanh, and this is how the battle start.  When PAVN began to bombard Khe Sanh, the impact causes the base’s main store of ammunition and destroying over 90 percent of its artillery and mortar rounds.  During the battle a massive aerial bombardment campaign, also known as Operation Niagara was launched by the United States Air Force to support the marine base located in Khe Sanh.  The Operation Niagara is an air support campaign with the purpose to defense U.S. Marine Corps Combat Base in Khe Sanh.  The U.S. and South Vietnam main objective of this battle is to defend Khe Sanh.  The reason the PAVN tried to get accessed into Khe Sanh and take over it because they want to seize South Vietnam’s northern regions to make themselves stronger.  Operation Pegasus take place from April 1 to April 14,1968, Marines launch a ground assault from Ca Lu (East of Khe Sanh) and head west on Route 9 while the 1st Cavalry Division would air assault key terrain along route 9 to fire support bases and let the Marine advance.  Afterward Operation Scotland II was launched on April 15, Marine patrol to make sure that there are no North Vietnam Army (NVA) trying to get close to the Marine base but while patrol on Hill 689 they were ambush by the NVA soldiers in bunkers.  Operation Charlie was launched for the final evacuation on June 19, 1968, after being to defend Khe Sanh the U.S. withdrew everything and leave Khe Sanh.  And because the U.S. withdrew from Khe Sanh and left it there the PAVN take control over Khe Sanh since it was abandoned with no protection.  Same as the other battle that happen in the Vietnam War, there are more Vietnamese soldiers being killed in battle then the U.S.  The reason why they lose more people is because they risk their life to get to their objective while the U.S. calculate and withdrew if they know that they won’t be able to handle the situation and take it safe while the NVA and Viet Cong would fight until they die.  This battle is important because this battle lead to the Tet Offensive which is a moment of confusion for the U.S. and South Vietnam since they were attack in many city and towns one after another it is hard to comprehend what was going on and where is the next target.